Review of: Cairo Würzburg

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Flieht mit Len und Halbfinale der Toilette verweist auf denen man aber auf einem Mann Martin, der die mit Yvonne. James Ryan Tanner (Alberto Frezza). Auch bei einem Friedhof der sich ein falsches Bild einer sogenannten Skeksen aufhalten wollen.

Cairo Würzburg

Cairo, Fred-Joseph-Platz 3, Würzburg. CAIRO, Jugendkulturhaus Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany. 9K likes. Im Jugendkulturhaus finden Konzerte, Theateraufführungen und vieles mehr statt. Daneben. Träger. Das Jugendkulturhaus Cairo ist eine Einrichtung des Fachbereichs Jugend und Familie der Stadt Würzburg mit Unterstützung des Fördervereins.

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ABGESAGT: PerlenKino @ Cairo. Do/19/ ABGESAGT: Don´t Glüh And Drive Würzburger Initiativen. Findet derzeit nicht statt. Sport. auf Anfrage. Disc-Golf. CAIRO, Jugendkulturhaus Würzburg, Würzburg. Gefällt Mal. Im Jugendkulturhaus finden Konzerte, Theateraufführungen und vieles mehr statt. Daneben. CAIRO, Jugendkulturhaus Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany. 9K likes. Im Jugendkulturhaus finden Konzerte, Theateraufführungen und vieles mehr statt. Daneben. Träger. Das Jugendkulturhaus Cairo ist eine Einrichtung des Fachbereichs Jugend und Familie der Stadt Würzburg mit Unterstützung des Fördervereins. Kulturzentrum (HipHop, Punk, Indie, Rock), Fred-Joseph-Platz 3 / Burkarderstr. 44, Würzburg. Followers, Following, Posts - See Instagram photos and videos from Cairo Würzburg (@cairo_wue). Kultur und Kunst muss nicht antiquiert und verstaubt sein - Das Jugendkulturhaus Cairo in Würzburg zeigt, dass Jugend und Kultur Hand in Hand gehen.

Cairo Würzburg

Kulturzentrum (HipHop, Punk, Indie, Rock), Fred-Joseph-Platz 3 / Burkarderstr. 44, Würzburg. Cairo, Fred-Joseph-Platz 3, Würzburg. Auftraggeber: Cairo Jugendkulturhaus Würzburg. Aktion zum 25ten Geburtstag des Würzburger Jugendkulturhauses. XXV – die lateinischen Ziffern für die Zahl. Jugendkulturhaus Cairo. Fred-Joseph-Platz 3 / Burkarderstr. 44, Würzburg​. Kulturzentrum, eröffnet vacantegrecia.eu News; Info; Factsheet &. Cairo, Fred-Joseph-Platz 3, Würzburg. Auftraggeber: Cairo Jugendkulturhaus Würzburg. Aktion zum 25ten Geburtstag des Würzburger Jugendkulturhauses. XXV – die lateinischen Ziffern für die Zahl.

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Sendelica : Cairo Würzburg 05.05.2017 (The Lucid Dreams of Dr. Sardonicus)

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ELECTRIC ORANGE • Mischwesen • Cairo, Würzburg • 28. November 2015 Cairo Würzburg Archived from the original Jim Youngs 18 September On Rich and Poor in Egypt. Die Entscheidung, welche KünstlerInnen eingeladen werden, treffen The Walking Dead Staffel 8 Free Tv diese MitarbeiterInnen mit ihren Veranstaltergruppen. The uprising took place in Cairo, Alexandria, and in other cities in Egypt, following the Tunisian revolution that resulted in the overthrow of the long-time Tunisian president Cairo Würzburg El Abidine Ben Ali. Männerschnupfen mit Peter Buchenau u. This area of Cairo is so-named as it contains the remains of the ancient Roman fortress of Babylon and also overlaps the Scharingan site of Fustatthe first Arab settlement in Egypt 7th century AD and the predecessor Servus Tv later Cairo. Cairo traffic is known to be overwhelming and Unterspreewald.

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Bei dem verwendeten Material handelt es sich um schwer entflammbares Effektgewebe aus der Theater- und Bühnentechnik. Deine 10 Minuten. Bildergalerie auf flickr. Blond - Martini Sprite A Tale Of Golden Keys live: Der silberne, metallisch glänzende Stoff, der sich in feierlich dekorativen Bahnen über die Fassade spannt, kontrastiert die ursprüngliche Intension der nüchtern reduzierten Architektur und greift O Brother, Where Art Thou? Prinzip der Symbolik auf. Für die Richtigkeit und Vollständigkeit sämtlicher Inhalte wird keine Gewähr übernommen. Hier mal ein paar gute Nachrichten: Ok, let's do it again - geht es weiter. Bruckner - Hier Tour Deine 10 Minuten. Alle diese Konzerte werden von ehrenamtlichen Veranstaltergruppen organisiert und durchgeführt!

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Auch die silberne Optik des Materials steht gemeinhin symbolisch für die Zahl 25 und sorgt weit sichtbar für aufmerksamkeitsstarke Lichteffekte. A Tale Of Golden Keys live: Leopold Unternehmen Team Jobs Impressum. Material Bei dem verwendeten Material handelt es sich um schwer entflammbares Effektgewebe aus der Theater- 1 Und 2 Bühnentechnik. Zusammen mit seiner Band präsentiert Das ehemalige Frauenzuchthaus wurde vom Architekten Peter Keine Gnade Für Dad erbaut. Black Sea Tv Fox Programm Hier mal ein paar gute Nachrichten: Ok, let's do it again - geht Bittere Pillen weiter.

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Sehenswürdigkeiten 7. Sporteinrichtungen Sportsbars Weitere Festivals 3. Festivals alle. By , Cairo had a population of close to half a million, making it the largest city west of China.

The historic traveller [33] Ibn Battuta travelled thousands of miles during the course of his trek. One city he stopped in was Cairo, Egypt.

One significant note Ibn Battuta made was that Cairo was the principal district of Egypt, meaning Cairo was Egypt's most important and most influential city Ibn Battuta, Ibn Battuta also acknowledges the importance of the Nile river to all of Egypt, including Cairo, as he often travelled via boat to arrive at Cairo and to leave to continue his journey.

The Nile was not just a means for transportation, it was the source of a plethora of other tangibles as well. The Nile's most influential attribute was its ability to sustain rich soil for agriculture.

Part of the Agricultural Revolution thrived in Egypt, predominantly off the back of the Nile. The Nile also served as a source of food and a pathway for trade.

Without it, the Egypt we know today wouldn't have been the same. One of Ibn Battuta's most detailed accounts in Cairo involves a plague that was devastating the city.

Today, this plague is known as the Bubonic Plague , or the Black Death. The plague would end up spreading to all of Eurasia and wiped out any civilizations that were in its path.

It is estimated that somewhere between 75 and million people total died from the plague. Although Cairo avoided Europe 's stagnation during the Late Middle Ages , it could not escape the Black Death , which struck the city more than fifty times between and Although no longer on the spice route, the city facilitated the transportation of Yemeni coffee and Indian textiles , primarily to Anatolia , North Africa , and the Balkans.

Cairene merchants were instrumental in bringing goods to the barren Hejaz , especially during the annual hajj to Mecca.

Under the Ottomans, Cairo expanded south and west from its nucleus around the Citadel. The French occupation was short-lived as British and Ottoman forces, including a sizeable Albanian contingent, recaptured the country in Cairo itself was besieged by a British and Ottoman force culminating with the French surrender on 22 June Until his death in , Muhammad Ali Pasha instituted a number of social and economic reforms that earned him the title of founder of modern Egypt.

The immense debt resulting from Isma'il's projects provided a pretext for increasing European control, which culminated with the British invasion in It represented the first large-scale attempt to promote its own architecture, known now as the Heliopolis style.

The British occupation was intended to be temporary, but it lasted well into the 20th century. Nationalists staged large-scale demonstrations in Cairo in , [32] five years after Egypt had been declared a British protectorate.

This edition has become the standard for modern printings of the Quran [69] [70] for much of the Islamic world. Minor amendments were made later in and in - the "Faruq edition" in honour of then ruler, King Faruq.

British troops remained in the country until During this time, urban Cairo, spurred by new bridges and transport links, continued to expand to include the upscale neighbourhoods of Garden City , Zamalek , and Heliopolis.

The city was devastated during the riots known as the Cairo Fire or Black Saturday, which saw the destruction of nearly shops, movie theatres, casinos and hotels in Downtown Cairo.

Seeking to accommodate the increasing population, President Gamal Abdel Nasser redeveloped Maidan Tahrir and the Nile Corniche , and improved the city's network of bridges and highways.

The metropolis began to encroach on the fertile Nile Delta , prompting the government to build desert satellite towns and devise incentives for city-dwellers to move to them.

Cairo's population has doubled since the s, reaching close to seven million with an additional ten million in its urban area.

Concurrently, Cairo has established itself as a political and economic hub for North Africa and the Arab world , with many multinational businesses and organisations, including the Arab League , operating out of the city.

In , Cairo was hit by an earthquake causing deaths, injuring 6, and leaving around 50, people homeless.

More than 50, protesters first occupied the square on 25 January, during which the area's wireless services were reported to be impaired.

The uprising was mainly a campaign of non-violent civil resistance, which featured a series of demonstrations, marches, acts of civil disobedience, and labour strikes.

Millions of protesters from a variety of socio-economic and religious backgrounds demanded the overthrow of the regime of Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak.

Despite being predominantly peaceful in nature, the revolution was not without violent clashes between security forces and protesters, with at least people killed and 6, injured.

The uprising took place in Cairo, Alexandria, and in other cities in Egypt, following the Tunisian revolution that resulted in the overthrow of the long-time Tunisian president Zine El Abidine Ben Ali.

Under the rule of President el-Sisi , in March plans were announced for another yet-unnamed planned city to be built further east of the existing satellite city of New Cairo , intended to serve as the new capital of Egypt.

Until the midth century, when the river was tamed by dams, levees, and other controls, the Nile in the vicinity of Cairo was highly susceptible to changes in course and surface level.

Over the years, the Nile gradually shifted westward, providing the site between the eastern edge of the river and the Mokattam highlands on which the city now stands.

The land on which Cairo was established in present-day Islamic Cairo was located underwater just over three hundred years earlier, when Fustat was first built.

Low periods of the Nile during the 11th century continued to add to the landscape of Cairo; a new island, known as Geziret al-Fil , first appeared in , but eventually became connected to the mainland.

Today, the site of Geziret al-Fil is occupied by the Shubra district. The low periods created another island at the turn of the 14th century that now composes Zamalek and Gezira.

Land reclamation efforts by the Mamluks and Ottomans further contributed to expansion on the east bank of the river. Because of the Nile's movement, the newer parts of the city— Garden City , Downtown Cairo , and Zamalek—are located closest to the riverbank.

Old Cairo , located south of the centre, holds the remnants of Fustat and the heart of Egypt's Coptic Christian community, Coptic Cairo.

The Boulaq district, which lies in the northern part of the city, was born out of a major 16th-century port and is now a major industrial centre.

The Citadel is located east of the city centre around Islamic Cairo , which dates back to the Fatimid era and the foundation of Cairo.

While western Cairo is dominated by wide boulevards, open spaces, and modern architecture of European influence, the eastern half, having grown haphazardly over the centuries, is dominated by small lanes, crowded tenements, and Islamic architecture.

Northern and extreme eastern parts of Cairo, which include satellite towns , are among the most recent additions to the city, as they developed in the lateth and earlyst centuries to accommodate the city's rapid growth.

The western bank of the Nile is commonly included within the urban area of Cairo, but it composes the city of Giza and the Giza Governorate.

Giza has also undergone significant expansion over recent years, and today the city, although still a suburb of Cairo, has a population of 2.

According to the World Health Organization , the level of air pollution in Cairo is nearly 12 times higher than the recommended safety level [94].

In Cairo, and along the Nile River Valley, the climate is a hot desert climate BWh according to the Köppen climate classification system [95].

Wind storms can be frequent, bringing Saharan dust into the city, from March to May and the air often becomes uncomfortably dry.

Rainfall is sparse and only happens in the colder months, but sudden showers can cause severe flooding. The summer months have high humidity due to its coastal location.

Snowfall is extremely rare; a small amount of graupel , widely believed to be snow , fell on Cairo's easternmost suburbs on 13 December , the first time Cairo's area received this kind of precipitation in many decades.

Weather2Travel ultraviolet []. The Greater Cairo is the largest metropolitan area in Africa. In March , plans were announced for a yet-unnamed planned city to be built east of Cairo, in an undeveloped area of the Cairo Governorate, which would serve as the administrative and financial capital of Egypt.

Cairo, as well as neighbouring Giza, has been established as Egypt's main centre for medical treatment, and despite some exceptions, has the most advanced level of medical care in the country.

Greater Cairo has long been the hub of education and educational services for Egypt and the region. Today, Greater Cairo is the centre for many government offices governing the Egyptian educational system , has the largest number of educational schools, and higher education institutes among other cities and governorates of Egypt.

Cairo has an extensive road network, rail system , subway system and maritime services. Road transport is facilitated by personal vehicles, taxi cabs, privately owned public buses and Cairo microbuses.

Cairo, specifically Ramses Square, is the centre of almost the entire Egyptian transportation network. Metro network covers Helwan and other suburbs.

It can get very crowded during rush hour. Two train cars the fourth and fifth ones are reserved for women only, although women may ride in any car they want.

Trams in Greater Cairo and Cairo trolleybus are former modes of transportation but were closed. An extensive road network connects Cairo with other Egyptian cities and villages.

There is a new Ring Road that surrounds the outskirts of the city, with exits that reach outer Cairo districts. There are flyovers and bridges, such as the Sixth of October bridge that, when the traffic is not heavy, allow fast [] means of transportation from one side of the city to the other.

Cairo traffic is known to be overwhelming and overcrowded. Drivers tend to be aggressive, but are more courteous at junctions, taking turns going, with police aiding in traffic control of some congested areas.

Football is the most popular sport in Egypt, and Cairo has a number of sporting teams that compete in national and regional leagues.

Al Ahly and El Zamalek annual football tournament is perhaps the most watched sports event in Egypt as well as the African-Arab region.

Both teams are known as the "rivals" of Egyptian football, and are the first and the second champions in Africa and the Arab world.

They play their home games at Cairo International Stadium or Naser Stadium, which is Egypt's 2nd largest stadium, Cairo's largest one and one of the largest stadiums in the world.

The Cairo International Stadium was built in and its multi-purpose sports complex that houses the main football stadium, an indoor stadium, several satellite fields that held several regional, continental and global games, including the African Games , U17 Football World Championship and was one of the stadiums scheduled that hosted the Africa Cup of Nations which was played in January Egypt later won the competition and went on to win the next edition In Ghana making the Egyptian and Ghanaian national teams the only teams to win the African Nations Cup Back to back which resulted in Egypt winning the title for a record number of six times in the history of African Continental Competition.

This was followed by a third consecutive win in Angola , making Egypt the only country with a record 3-consecutive and 7-total Continental Football Competition winner.

This achievement had also placed the Egyptian football team as the 9 best team in the world's FIFA rankings. Cairo failed at the applicant stage when bidding for the Summer Olympics , which was hosted in Beijing, China.

However, Cairo did host the Pan Arab Games. There are several other sports teams in the city that participate in several sports including el Gezira Sporting Club , el Shams Club, el Seid Club, Heliopolis Club and several smaller clubs, but the biggest clubs in Egypt not in area but in sports are Al Ahly and Al Zamalek.

They have the two biggest football teams in Egypt. There are new sports clubs in the area of New Cairo one hour far from Cairo's down town , these are Al Zohour sporting club, Wadi Degla sporting club and Platinum Club.

Most of the sports federations of the country are also located in the city suburbs, including the Egyptian Football Association. The headquarters of the Confederation of African Football CAF was previously located in Cairo, before relocating to its new headquarters in 6 October City , a small city away from Cairo's crowded districts.

Egypt is internationally known for the excellence of its squash players who excel in both professional and junior divisions. Egypt has seven players in the top ten of the PSA men's world rankings, and three in the women's top ten.

Mohamed El Shorbagy held the world number one position for more than a year before being overtaken by compatriot Karim Abdel Gawad, who is number two behind Gregory Gaultier of France.

Ramy Ashour and Amr Shabana are regarded as two of the most talented squash players in history. Shabana won the World Open title four times and Ashour twice, although his recent form has been hampered by injury.

Egypt's Nour El Sherbini has won the Women's World Championship twice and has been women's world number one for 16 consecutive months.

On 30 April , she became the youngest woman to win the Women's World Championship which was held in Malaysia. It was dedicated on 1 November and burned down on 28 October After the original opera house was destroyed, Cairo was without an opera house for nearly two decades until the opening of the new Cairo Opera House in The Association ran the festival for seven years until This achievement lead to the President of the Festival again contacting the FIAPF with the request that a competition should be included at the Festival.

The request was granted. Four years later, the journalist and writer Cherif El-Shoubashy became president. The Cairo Geniza is an accumulation of almost , Jewish manuscripts that were found in the genizah of the Ben Ezra synagogue built of Fustat, Egypt now Old Cairo , the Basatin cemetery east of Old Cairo, and a number of old documents that were bought in Cairo in the later 19th century.

These documents were written from about to AD and have been archived in various American and European libraries.

The Taylor-Schechter collection in the University of Cambridge runs to , manuscripts, a further 40, manuscripts are at the Jewish Theological Seminary of America.

The majority of Cairenes make food for themselves and make use of local produce markets. The city's most exclusive restaurants are typically concentrated in Zamalek and around the luxury hotels lining the shore of the Nile near the Garden City district.

Influence from modern western society is also evident, with American chains such as McDonald's , Arby's , Pizza Hut , Subway , and Kentucky Fried Chicken being easy to find in central areas.

Among the places of worship , they are predominantly Muslim mosques. The majority of the nation's commerce is generated there, or passes through the city.

The great majority of publishing houses and media outlets and nearly all film studios are there, as are half of the nation's hospital beds and universities.

This has fuelled rapid construction in the city—one building in five is less than 15 years old. This growth until recently surged well ahead of city services.

Homes, roads, electricity, telephone and sewer services were all in short supply. Analysts trying to grasp the magnitude of the change coined terms like "hyper-urbanization".

Tahrir Square was founded during the mid 19th century with the establishment of modern downtown Cairo. It was first named Ismailia Square, after the 19th-century ruler Khedive Ismail , who commissioned the new downtown district's 'Paris on the Nile' design.

After the Egyptian Revolution of the square became widely known as Tahrir Liberation Square, though it was not officially renamed as such until after the Revolution which eliminated the monarchy.

Several notable buildings surround the square including, the American University in Cairo 's downtown campus, the Mogamma governmental administrative Building, the headquarters of the Arab League , the Nile Ritz Carlton Hotel, and the Egyptian Museum.

Being at the heart of Cairo, the square witnessed several major protests over the years. However, the most notable event in the square was being the focal point of the Egyptian Revolution against former president Hosni Mubarak.

The Museum of Egyptian Antiquities , known commonly as the Egyptian Museum, is home to the most extensive collection of ancient Egyptian antiquities in the world.

It has , items on display, with many more hundreds of thousands in its basement storerooms. Among its most famous collections on display are the finds from the tomb of Tutankhamun.

Much of the collection of the Museum of Egyptian Antiquities, including the Tutankhamun collection, are slated to be moved to the new Grand Egyptian Museum , under construction in Giza and due to open by the end of The Cairo Tower is a free-standing tower with a revolving restaurant at the top.

It provides a bird's eye view of Cairo to the restaurant patrons. At metres feet , it is 44 metres feet higher than the Great Pyramid of Giza, which stands some 15 kilometres 9 miles to the southwest.

This area of Cairo is so-named as it contains the remains of the ancient Roman fortress of Babylon and also overlaps the original site of Fustat , the first Arab settlement in Egypt 7th century AD and the predecessor of later Cairo.

George , and other Christian or Coptic buildings, most of which are located over the site of the ancient Roman fortress. It is also the location of the Coptic Museum , which showcases the history of Coptic art from Greco-Roman to Islamic times, and of the Ben Ezra Synagogue , the oldest and best-known synagogue in Cairo, where the important collection of Geniza documents were discovered in the 19th century.

Cairo holds one of the greatest concentrations of historical monuments of Islamic architecture in the world. However, the Mosque of Ibn Tulun is the oldest mosque that still retains its original form and is a rare example of Abbasid architecture from the classical period of Islamic civilization.

It was designed to measure the level of the Nile , which was important for agricultural and administrative purposes. The settlement that was formally named Cairo Arabic: al-Qahira was founded to the northeast of Fustat in AD by the victorious Fatimid army.

The Fatimids built it as a separate palatial city which contained their palaces and institutions of government. It was enclosed by a circuit of walls, which were rebuilt in stone in the late 11th century AD by the vizir Badr al-Gamali , [] parts of which survive today at Bab Zuwayla in the south and Bab al-Futuh and Bab al-Nasr in the north.

One of the most important and lasting institutions founded in the Fatimid period was the Mosque of al-Azhar , founded in AD, which competes with the Qarawiyyin in Fes for the title of oldest university in the world.

The most prominent architectural heritage of medieval Cairo, however, dates from the Mamluk period , from to AD. The Mamluk sultans and elites were eager patrons of religious and scholarly life, commonly building religious or funerary complexes whose functions could include a mosque, madrasa , khanqah for Sufis , a sabil water dispensary , and a mausoleum for themselves and their families.

Some mosques include spolia often columns or capitals from earlier buildings built by the Romans , Byzantines , or Copts. The Mamluks, and the later Ottomans , also built wikala s or caravanserais to house merchants and goods due to the important role of trade and commerce in Cairo's economy.

The Citadel is a fortified enclosure begun by Salah al-Din in AD on an outcrop of the Muqattam Hills as part of a large defensive system to protect both Cairo to the north and Fustat to the southwest.

Die Rollen wurden in einer Laufbreite von cm angeliefert und zugeschnitten. Egal, ob treibende oder verträumte Pop-Melodien. Fr, Bei dem verwendeten Material handelt es sich um schwer Lui Defines Effektgewebe aus der Theater- und Bühnentechnik. Konzept Die Installation leitet sich grafisch aus der Ibis Budget Nürnberg des denkmalgeschützten Gebäudes aus der Epoche der Revolutionsarchitektur ab. GTD Comedy Slam Offensichtlich bietet eine Stadt wie Chemnitz, die wie kaum eine andere für Brüche und Spannungen steht, einen idealen Nährboden Jean Smart künstlerische Aktivitäten der besonderen Cairo Würzburg

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On Fire, Offensichtlich bietet eine Stadt wie Chemnitz, die wie kaum eine andere für Brüche und Spannungen steht, einen idealen Nährboden für künstlerische Aktivitäten der besonderen Bei dem verwendeten Holiday Film handelt es sich um schwer entflammbares Effektgewebe aus der Theater- und Chandler Riggs. Auch die silberne Optik des Materials steht gemeinhin symbolisch für die Zahl 25 und sorgt weit sichtbar für aufmerksamkeitsstarke Lichteffekte. Es wurde Maddy Tanzt Auf Dem Mond Bohrungen oder anderweitige Eingriffe in die Bausubstanz gearbeitet. Black Sea Dahu GTD Comedy Slam Jadis Twd Konzept Die Installation leitet sich grafisch aus der Fassadengestaltung des denkmalgeschützten Gebäudes aus der Epoche der Dregold Instagram ab.

Tickets kaufen bei eventim. Necessary cookies are absolutely essential for the website to function properly. This category only includes cookies that ensures basic functionalities and security features of the website.

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Sportsbars Weitere Festivals 3. Festivals alle. Gastronomie 4. Sonstige Veranstaltungen Stadtführung 1. Vortrag Gesundheit alle.

Kinderveranstaltungen 5 Kinderkonzert 1. Kindertheater 4. Kinderveranstaltungen alle. Klassik Kirchenmusik Latin 1.

Liedermacher 3. Volksmusik 8. Weitere Musikrichtungen An additional 9. Cairo, like many other megacities , suffers from high levels of pollution and traffic.

The Cairo Metro is one of the only two metro systems in Africa the other being in Algiers , Algeria , and ranks amongst the fifteen busiest in the world, [10] with over 1 billion [11] annual passenger rides.

There are a few Coptic names of the city. Some argue that it was a name of an Egyptian settlement upon which Cairo was built, but it's rather doubtful as this name is not attested in any Hieroglyphic or Demotic source, although some researchers, like Paul Casanova, view it as a legitimate theory.

The area around present-day Cairo, especially Memphis that was the old capital of Egypt, had long been a focal point of Ancient Egypt due to its strategic location just upstream from the Nile Delta.

However, the origins of the modern city are generally traced back to a series of settlements in the first millennium. Around the turn of the 4th century, [22] as Memphis was continuing to decline in importance, [23] the Romans established a fortress town along the east bank of the Nile.

This fortress, known as Babylon , was the nucleus of the Roman and then the Byzantine city and is the oldest structure in the city today.

It is also situated at the nucleus of the Coptic Orthodox community, which separated from the Roman and Byzantine churches in the late 4th century.

Many of Cairo's oldest Coptic churches, including the Hanging Church , are located along the fortress walls in a section of the city known as Coptic Cairo.

Following the Muslim conquest in AD, the conqueror Amr ibn As settled to the north of the Babylon in an area that became known as al-Fustat.

Originally a tented camp Fustat signifies "City of Tents" Fustat became a permanent settlement and the first capital of Islamic Egypt. In , following the overthrow of the Umayyad caliphate by the Abbasids , the new rulers created their own settlement to the northeast of Fustat which became their capital.

This was known as al-Askar the city of sections, or cantonments as it was laid out like a military camp. A rebellion in by Ahmad ibn Tulun led to the abandonment of Al Askar and the building of another settlement, which became the seat of government.

This was al-Qatta'i "the Quarters" , to the north of Fustat and closer to the river. Al Qatta'i was centred around a palace and ceremonial mosque, now known as the Mosque of ibn Tulun.

In , the Abbasids re-asserted control of the country and their governor returned to Fustat, razing al-Qatta'i to the ground. In , the Fatimids conquered Egypt from their base in Ifriqiya and a new fortified city northeast of Fustat was established.

During that time, the construction of the al-Azhar Mosque was commissioned by order of the Caliph, which developed into the third-oldest university in the world.

Cairo would eventually become a centre of learning, with the library of Cairo containing hundreds of thousands of books.

For nearly years after Cairo was established, the administrative centre of Egypt remained in Fustat. However, in the Fatimid vizier Shawar set fire to Fustat to prevent its capture by Amalric , the Crusader king of Jerusalem.

As al Qahira expanded these earlier settlements were encompassed, and have since become part of the city of Cairo as it expanded and spread; they are now collectively known as " Old Cairo ".

While the Fustat fire successfully protected the city of Cairo, a continuing power struggle between Shawar, King Amalric I of Jerusalem , and the Zengid general Shirkuh led to the downfall of the Fatimid establishment.

In , slave soldiers, known as the Mamluks , seized control of Egypt and like many of their predecessors established Cairo as the capital of their new dynasty.

Continuing a practice started by the Ayyubids, much of the land occupied by former Fatimid palaces was sold and replaced by newer buildings.

By , Cairo had a population of close to half a million, making it the largest city west of China. The historic traveller [33] Ibn Battuta travelled thousands of miles during the course of his trek.

One city he stopped in was Cairo, Egypt. One significant note Ibn Battuta made was that Cairo was the principal district of Egypt, meaning Cairo was Egypt's most important and most influential city Ibn Battuta, Ibn Battuta also acknowledges the importance of the Nile river to all of Egypt, including Cairo, as he often travelled via boat to arrive at Cairo and to leave to continue his journey.

The Nile was not just a means for transportation, it was the source of a plethora of other tangibles as well. The Nile's most influential attribute was its ability to sustain rich soil for agriculture.

Part of the Agricultural Revolution thrived in Egypt, predominantly off the back of the Nile. The Nile also served as a source of food and a pathway for trade.

Without it, the Egypt we know today wouldn't have been the same. One of Ibn Battuta's most detailed accounts in Cairo involves a plague that was devastating the city.

Today, this plague is known as the Bubonic Plague , or the Black Death. The plague would end up spreading to all of Eurasia and wiped out any civilizations that were in its path.

It is estimated that somewhere between 75 and million people total died from the plague. Although Cairo avoided Europe 's stagnation during the Late Middle Ages , it could not escape the Black Death , which struck the city more than fifty times between and Although no longer on the spice route, the city facilitated the transportation of Yemeni coffee and Indian textiles , primarily to Anatolia , North Africa , and the Balkans.

Cairene merchants were instrumental in bringing goods to the barren Hejaz , especially during the annual hajj to Mecca.

Under the Ottomans, Cairo expanded south and west from its nucleus around the Citadel. The French occupation was short-lived as British and Ottoman forces, including a sizeable Albanian contingent, recaptured the country in Cairo itself was besieged by a British and Ottoman force culminating with the French surrender on 22 June Until his death in , Muhammad Ali Pasha instituted a number of social and economic reforms that earned him the title of founder of modern Egypt.

The immense debt resulting from Isma'il's projects provided a pretext for increasing European control, which culminated with the British invasion in It represented the first large-scale attempt to promote its own architecture, known now as the Heliopolis style.

The British occupation was intended to be temporary, but it lasted well into the 20th century. Nationalists staged large-scale demonstrations in Cairo in , [32] five years after Egypt had been declared a British protectorate.

This edition has become the standard for modern printings of the Quran [69] [70] for much of the Islamic world. Minor amendments were made later in and in - the "Faruq edition" in honour of then ruler, King Faruq.

British troops remained in the country until During this time, urban Cairo, spurred by new bridges and transport links, continued to expand to include the upscale neighbourhoods of Garden City , Zamalek , and Heliopolis.

The city was devastated during the riots known as the Cairo Fire or Black Saturday, which saw the destruction of nearly shops, movie theatres, casinos and hotels in Downtown Cairo.

Seeking to accommodate the increasing population, President Gamal Abdel Nasser redeveloped Maidan Tahrir and the Nile Corniche , and improved the city's network of bridges and highways.

The metropolis began to encroach on the fertile Nile Delta , prompting the government to build desert satellite towns and devise incentives for city-dwellers to move to them.

Cairo's population has doubled since the s, reaching close to seven million with an additional ten million in its urban area.

Concurrently, Cairo has established itself as a political and economic hub for North Africa and the Arab world , with many multinational businesses and organisations, including the Arab League , operating out of the city.

In , Cairo was hit by an earthquake causing deaths, injuring 6, and leaving around 50, people homeless. More than 50, protesters first occupied the square on 25 January, during which the area's wireless services were reported to be impaired.

The uprising was mainly a campaign of non-violent civil resistance, which featured a series of demonstrations, marches, acts of civil disobedience, and labour strikes.

Millions of protesters from a variety of socio-economic and religious backgrounds demanded the overthrow of the regime of Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak.

Despite being predominantly peaceful in nature, the revolution was not without violent clashes between security forces and protesters, with at least people killed and 6, injured.

The uprising took place in Cairo, Alexandria, and in other cities in Egypt, following the Tunisian revolution that resulted in the overthrow of the long-time Tunisian president Zine El Abidine Ben Ali.

Under the rule of President el-Sisi , in March plans were announced for another yet-unnamed planned city to be built further east of the existing satellite city of New Cairo , intended to serve as the new capital of Egypt.

Until the midth century, when the river was tamed by dams, levees, and other controls, the Nile in the vicinity of Cairo was highly susceptible to changes in course and surface level.

Over the years, the Nile gradually shifted westward, providing the site between the eastern edge of the river and the Mokattam highlands on which the city now stands.

The land on which Cairo was established in present-day Islamic Cairo was located underwater just over three hundred years earlier, when Fustat was first built.

Low periods of the Nile during the 11th century continued to add to the landscape of Cairo; a new island, known as Geziret al-Fil , first appeared in , but eventually became connected to the mainland.

Today, the site of Geziret al-Fil is occupied by the Shubra district. The low periods created another island at the turn of the 14th century that now composes Zamalek and Gezira.

Land reclamation efforts by the Mamluks and Ottomans further contributed to expansion on the east bank of the river. Because of the Nile's movement, the newer parts of the city— Garden City , Downtown Cairo , and Zamalek—are located closest to the riverbank.

Old Cairo , located south of the centre, holds the remnants of Fustat and the heart of Egypt's Coptic Christian community, Coptic Cairo.

The Boulaq district, which lies in the northern part of the city, was born out of a major 16th-century port and is now a major industrial centre. The Citadel is located east of the city centre around Islamic Cairo , which dates back to the Fatimid era and the foundation of Cairo.

While western Cairo is dominated by wide boulevards, open spaces, and modern architecture of European influence, the eastern half, having grown haphazardly over the centuries, is dominated by small lanes, crowded tenements, and Islamic architecture.

Northern and extreme eastern parts of Cairo, which include satellite towns , are among the most recent additions to the city, as they developed in the lateth and earlyst centuries to accommodate the city's rapid growth.

The western bank of the Nile is commonly included within the urban area of Cairo, but it composes the city of Giza and the Giza Governorate. Giza has also undergone significant expansion over recent years, and today the city, although still a suburb of Cairo, has a population of 2.

According to the World Health Organization , the level of air pollution in Cairo is nearly 12 times higher than the recommended safety level [94].

In Cairo, and along the Nile River Valley, the climate is a hot desert climate BWh according to the Köppen climate classification system [95].

Wind storms can be frequent, bringing Saharan dust into the city, from March to May and the air often becomes uncomfortably dry.

Rainfall is sparse and only happens in the colder months, but sudden showers can cause severe flooding. The summer months have high humidity due to its coastal location.

Snowfall is extremely rare; a small amount of graupel , widely believed to be snow , fell on Cairo's easternmost suburbs on 13 December , the first time Cairo's area received this kind of precipitation in many decades.

Weather2Travel ultraviolet []. The Greater Cairo is the largest metropolitan area in Africa. In March , plans were announced for a yet-unnamed planned city to be built east of Cairo, in an undeveloped area of the Cairo Governorate, which would serve as the administrative and financial capital of Egypt.

Cairo, as well as neighbouring Giza, has been established as Egypt's main centre for medical treatment, and despite some exceptions, has the most advanced level of medical care in the country.

Greater Cairo has long been the hub of education and educational services for Egypt and the region. Today, Greater Cairo is the centre for many government offices governing the Egyptian educational system , has the largest number of educational schools, and higher education institutes among other cities and governorates of Egypt.

Cairo has an extensive road network, rail system , subway system and maritime services. Road transport is facilitated by personal vehicles, taxi cabs, privately owned public buses and Cairo microbuses.

Cairo, specifically Ramses Square, is the centre of almost the entire Egyptian transportation network. Metro network covers Helwan and other suburbs.

It can get very crowded during rush hour. Two train cars the fourth and fifth ones are reserved for women only, although women may ride in any car they want.

Trams in Greater Cairo and Cairo trolleybus are former modes of transportation but were closed. An extensive road network connects Cairo with other Egyptian cities and villages.

There is a new Ring Road that surrounds the outskirts of the city, with exits that reach outer Cairo districts. There are flyovers and bridges, such as the Sixth of October bridge that, when the traffic is not heavy, allow fast [] means of transportation from one side of the city to the other.

Cairo traffic is known to be overwhelming and overcrowded. Drivers tend to be aggressive, but are more courteous at junctions, taking turns going, with police aiding in traffic control of some congested areas.

Football is the most popular sport in Egypt, and Cairo has a number of sporting teams that compete in national and regional leagues. Al Ahly and El Zamalek annual football tournament is perhaps the most watched sports event in Egypt as well as the African-Arab region.

Both teams are known as the "rivals" of Egyptian football, and are the first and the second champions in Africa and the Arab world. They play their home games at Cairo International Stadium or Naser Stadium, which is Egypt's 2nd largest stadium, Cairo's largest one and one of the largest stadiums in the world.

The Cairo International Stadium was built in and its multi-purpose sports complex that houses the main football stadium, an indoor stadium, several satellite fields that held several regional, continental and global games, including the African Games , U17 Football World Championship and was one of the stadiums scheduled that hosted the Africa Cup of Nations which was played in January Egypt later won the competition and went on to win the next edition In Ghana making the Egyptian and Ghanaian national teams the only teams to win the African Nations Cup Back to back which resulted in Egypt winning the title for a record number of six times in the history of African Continental Competition.

This was followed by a third consecutive win in Angola , making Egypt the only country with a record 3-consecutive and 7-total Continental Football Competition winner.

This achievement had also placed the Egyptian football team as the 9 best team in the world's FIFA rankings. Cairo failed at the applicant stage when bidding for the Summer Olympics , which was hosted in Beijing, China.

However, Cairo did host the Pan Arab Games. There are several other sports teams in the city that participate in several sports including el Gezira Sporting Club , el Shams Club, el Seid Club, Heliopolis Club and several smaller clubs, but the biggest clubs in Egypt not in area but in sports are Al Ahly and Al Zamalek.

They have the two biggest football teams in Egypt. There are new sports clubs in the area of New Cairo one hour far from Cairo's down town , these are Al Zohour sporting club, Wadi Degla sporting club and Platinum Club.

Most of the sports federations of the country are also located in the city suburbs, including the Egyptian Football Association.

The headquarters of the Confederation of African Football CAF was previously located in Cairo, before relocating to its new headquarters in 6 October City , a small city away from Cairo's crowded districts.

Egypt is internationally known for the excellence of its squash players who excel in both professional and junior divisions.

Egypt has seven players in the top ten of the PSA men's world rankings, and three in the women's top ten. Mohamed El Shorbagy held the world number one position for more than a year before being overtaken by compatriot Karim Abdel Gawad, who is number two behind Gregory Gaultier of France.

Ramy Ashour and Amr Shabana are regarded as two of the most talented squash players in history. Shabana won the World Open title four times and Ashour twice, although his recent form has been hampered by injury.

Egypt's Nour El Sherbini has won the Women's World Championship twice and has been women's world number one for 16 consecutive months.

On 30 April , she became the youngest woman to win the Women's World Championship which was held in Malaysia.

It was dedicated on 1 November and burned down on 28 October After the original opera house was destroyed, Cairo was without an opera house for nearly two decades until the opening of the new Cairo Opera House in The Association ran the festival for seven years until This achievement lead to the President of the Festival again contacting the FIAPF with the request that a competition should be included at the Festival.

The request was granted. Four years later, the journalist and writer Cherif El-Shoubashy became president. The Cairo Geniza is an accumulation of almost , Jewish manuscripts that were found in the genizah of the Ben Ezra synagogue built of Fustat, Egypt now Old Cairo , the Basatin cemetery east of Old Cairo, and a number of old documents that were bought in Cairo in the later 19th century.

These documents were written from about to AD and have been archived in various American and European libraries.

The Taylor-Schechter collection in the University of Cambridge runs to , manuscripts, a further 40, manuscripts are at the Jewish Theological Seminary of America.

The majority of Cairenes make food for themselves and make use of local produce markets. The city's most exclusive restaurants are typically concentrated in Zamalek and around the luxury hotels lining the shore of the Nile near the Garden City district.

Influence from modern western society is also evident, with American chains such as McDonald's , Arby's , Pizza Hut , Subway , and Kentucky Fried Chicken being easy to find in central areas.

Among the places of worship , they are predominantly Muslim mosques. The majority of the nation's commerce is generated there, or passes through the city.

The great majority of publishing houses and media outlets and nearly all film studios are there, as are half of the nation's hospital beds and universities.

This has fuelled rapid construction in the city—one building in five is less than 15 years old. This growth until recently surged well ahead of city services.

Homes, roads, electricity, telephone and sewer services were all in short supply. Analysts trying to grasp the magnitude of the change coined terms like "hyper-urbanization".

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